John Revere Made Two Epochal Trips for American Liberty
It is one of the ironies of American history that will Paul Revere should be best kept in mind for a horse ride he never completed — and which brought on a war that might never have happened had he not galloped about in the night alarming the country.
Of greater significance, and a success of horsemanship, was another trip a year earlier by Revere within 1774.
Patrick Henry had dared to suggest independence from Great Britain during the Spring of that year together with his famous “Give me liberty, or give me death! ” speech.
This sparked a determination of the colonies to call a Continental Our elected representatives in Philadelphia to try and persuade King George to repeal certain taxes they considered “coercive and intolerable. ”
Radicals in Massachusetts — led by Samuel Adams, John Hancock and Dr . Joseph Warren — felt the approach of this first Congress was weak. These people called their own convention of cities in Suffolk County to hear Doctor Warren read a set of stern promises he had drafted.
The resolutions grew to become known as the Suffolk Resolves, and they set the tone for the eventual Revolution. They declared that a king who else had violated chartered rights associated with his subjects forfeits their faithfulness, and that the “regulating act” starving Massachusetts of rights and liberties without notice was null and gap.
The resolves urged the people of Massachusetts to form a government of their own to gather taxes and withhold them through royal authorities until the coercive works were repealed. Citizens were advised to gather arms and form the militia. A boycott of Uk goods was recommended.
Finally, the particular resolves warned that if patriots had been arrested for political reasons, royal officers would be seized and held as hostages. Terrorist tactics aren’t recent inventions.
The Congress had convened in Philadelphia only three days earlier, as well as the Massachusetts firebrands were anxious to influence the colony-wide convention.
Dr . Warren handed the resolves to Revere two days after were followed. The Boston silversmith then set out to deliver the packet of nineteen resolutions to the Congress.
Revere traveled the 319 miles in six days, wearing out dozens of horses provided along the route by other patriots. It had been a remarkably rapid journey for that period and an impressive feat of stamina by Revere.
The urgent delivery of the resolves impressed Congress using the feeling and intent of the heavily populated New England colonies bent on independence from Britain.
Presiding officer of the First Continental Congress was Peyton Randolph. It was he or she who read the resolves whisked towards the hall by Revere.
The room erupted when Randolph finished reading. Guys swarmed to the Massachusetts delegation, cheering and shouting. Emotion swept higher, and the representatives brushed aside pleas for calm deliberation. The next day, Our elected representatives adopted the Suffolk Resolves without changing a comma.
To carry out the resolves, a Continental Organization was formed. Committees of Security were appointed in every town to find out that the resolves were carried out.
The die was cast for defiance of the crown and ultimate independence.
In addition to composing the Suffolk Resolves and dispatching Revere on his dash to Philadelphia, Doctor Warren sent Revere and Bill Dawes on the poetic “midnight ride” in April 1775.
The objective of Revere and Dawes has been to warn the militia from Concord — where a cache associated with rifles had been buried in a corn field — that the British had been about to go there in search of the particular weapons.
The riders took different routes but met on the Concord Road outside Lexington. There, they were joined by Dr . Samuel Prescott who was on his way home right after visiting his sweetheart.
Shortly afterwards, the three Americans were stopped by a British patrol. Revere and Dawes meekly turned back. However , Doctor Prescott spurred his horse plus leaped it over a stone wall structure. He rode on to Concord to alert the militia.
The contingent of 700 British regulars arrived at Lexington early in the morning. It discovered 77 “minutemen” — organized in accordance with Dr . Warren’s resolves — drawn up to greet them. Their purchase by Capt. John Parker had been: “Don’t fire unless fired on; but if they want a war, let it begin here. ”
The militia had almost been persuaded to retire when an unidentified shot rang out. In a spontaneous reflex, British soldiers fired at the Americans, eliminating eight and wounding 10. The rest returned fire but fled. 3 soldiers were injured.
The Uk proceeded to Concord but were ambushed at a bridge by a hundred and fifty minutemen. The soldiers fired back but rushed into town in order to regroup after three of their quantity were killed.
The delay was costly to the British. As they fruitlessly ransacked homes for weapons, American militiamen rushed to the Concord-Boston street.
On the return trip, the Reddish Coats were fired on simply by an estimated 4, 000 minutemen dispersed along the way and shooting from behind trees and walls. They slain 73 Red Coats and injured 200. American losses were forty-nine killed, 39 wounded.
Battle associated with Breed’s Hill
Dr . Warren had become chairman of the Committee associated with Safety for Boston. In his capability, he ordered a siege associated with British-held Boston.
The British attemptedto lift the siege by assaulting the colonial militia entrenched on Breed’s Hill — not on nearby Bunker Hill, as some background books assert.
Dr . Warren hastened to the battlefield but arrived only minutes before the attack. As the position militia officer, he was offered command by Capt. William Prescott. Instead, Warren took a musket in the front line. Prescott’s battle order was: “Don’t shoot unless you see the whites of their eyes. ”
The Americans, accomplished riflemen, poured withering fire against three dunes of Welsh Fusiliers. Nevertheless, Prescott’s men retreated to Bunker Hill when they ran out of ammunition.
A British rifle ball killed Doctor Warren who was hastily buried in the battlefield so the enemy could not desecrate his body. He had organized the newest England Grand Lodge of Freemasons and was its first grand master. His grave was designated with a secret Masonic sign which usually enabled Paul Revere and other Masons to find Dr . Warren’s body several weeks later for honorable burial.
The particular British sent 2, 250 regulars into the battle. Of these, 226 were killed and 2, 024 injured. The American casualties were a hundred and forty killed and 271 wounded. Each sides claimed victory — from the British for driving the rebels off Breed’s Hill, by the People in america for driving the British returning to their Boston barracks.
British Common John Burgoyne, defeated at the battle of Saratoga three years later, explained the battle of Breed’s hill at the time as “the end from the British empire in America. ” Indeed, Style.
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Charles Cornwallis surrendered the war to the United States after his beat at Yorktown in Oct. 1781,
It is interesting to speculate what the string of events might have been if John Revere had not been successful in his first horse ride — and lost in his second.
May 9, 2005